Saturday, May 23, 2020

Capital Punishment And The Death Penalty Essay - 1740 Words

Capital punishment also known as the â€Å"death penalty† is one of the many sanctions used for violent criminal whom are convicted of heinous crimes. It is a government sanction in which criminals are put to death by the state government. There’s an on-going debate regarding the pros and cons of the death penalty. There are some individuals whom support the penalty and also a large number of individuals whom are totally against the death penalty. There is no clear decision whether the death penalty is effective and provides a sense of deterrence or whether it’s simply a costly mistake. But is the death penalty influencing others not to commit crime or is just a sanction that cost a lot and no one pays attention to? The criminal justice system has always focused on punishment rather than rehabilitation. They use the punishment sanctions to â€Å"prevent† future crime. Society sees punishment as the most acceptable way to hold criminals liable for their actions and to prove that there is social order. Capital punishment is one used when offenders commit more than likely heinous violent criminal acts such as murder. Some of the capital offenses that are punishable by death include first degree murder, rape with bodily harm, and federal treason. Although the death penalty will stop those individuals from committing a future crime, unfortunately it won’t deter other individuals from committing crime. Capital punishment isn’t something the criminal justice takes lightly meaning; we don’tShow MoreRelatedCapital Punishment : The Death Penalty1482 Words   |  6 PagesMrs. McElmoyl 12/12/14 Capital Punishment As stated by former governor of New York, Mario M. Cuomo, Always I have concluded the death penalty is wrong because it lowers us all; it is a surrender to the worst that is in us; it uses a power- the official power to kill by execution- that has never brought back a life, need inspired anything but hate. (Cuomo 1) This is one of the main arguments against capital punishment (also known as the death sentence.) Capital punishment is the ability for a governmentRead MoreThe Death Penalty And Capital Punishment931 Words   |  4 Pageswritten down (Robert). The death penalty was applied for a particularly wide range of crimes. The Romans also used death penalty for a wide range of offenses. Historically, the death sentence was often handled with torture, and executions, except that it was done in public. In this century, the death penalty, execution or capital punishment, whatever you’d like to refer it as, is the result for committing capital crimes or capital offences and it is not in public. The death penalty has been practiced byRead MoreCapital Punishment : The Death Penalty1410 Words   |  6 PagesCapital Punishment in America In 1976 the Supreme Court of the United States of America ruled the Death Penalty constitutionally permissible. The debate over capital punishment has always been a topic of great controversy. Before the Supreme Court ruling in 1976 America had been practicing capital punishment for centuries. At the current time some states enforce the death penalty, while some do not. There are differences of opinion’s relating to whether or not the death penalty is the proper wayRead MoreCapital Punishment And The Death Penalty991 Words   |  4 PagesCapital Punishment Imagine your having a normal morning, eating breakfast doing your normal routine. Suddenly your phone rings and when you answer you hear the worst news possible. One of your family members has just been murdered in cold blood. You cry, mourn, then become angry. You attend the court hearing and you sit less than 20 feet away from the murderer. Do you truly believe this person deserves to live? Or should they face a punishment that is equal to their crime? Some may say CapitalRead MoreThe Death Penalty And Capital Punishment1569 Words   |  7 Pagesthe death penalty also referred to as capital punishment. The death penalty is both useless and harmful to not only criminals but also their potential victims. This paper uses these horrific facts to try and convince the reader that the death penalty should be done away with before it is too late, although that time may have already come. With supporting evidence to support my cause, I hope that the following information sways at least one reader to see the harm of keeping the death penalty an activeRead MoreCapital Punishment And The Death Penalty1235 Words   |  5 PagesWhat is capital punishment? Why do people support it, but yet people cherish lives? Is it a moral thing to do? Should one be for or against the Death Penalty? Let’s take a look deep into the world of justices and why capital punishment still exists in today’s society. Capital punishment or the death penalty is a feder al punishment given to criminals who are convicted of murders. It is the highest law punishment available that can prevent future murders by developing fear within them. Capital punishmentRead MoreCapital Punishment And The Death Penalty1017 Words   |  5 PagesName: Lucas Falley Topic: Capital Punishment Background: Capital punishment, or the death penalty, has existed for thousands of years. For as long as there has been organized society, the death penalty has existed in numerous cultures and civilizations. Throughout the years the methods have changed, but the use of capital punishment is becoming a pressing matter. Amnesty International reports that there are 140 countries worldwide that have abolished the death penalty, while over 50 countries stillRead MoreThe Death Penalty Is A Capital Punishment1271 Words   |  6 Pages What is the death penalty? The death penalty is a capital punishment that is punishable by death or execution. This is usually given to people that have committed serious offences or capital crimes. There are 31 states in the United States that are for the death penalty. Crimes that are punishable by the death penalty, vary from state to state. Examples of such crimes are; first degree murder or premeditated murder, murder with special circumstances, such as: intende d, multiple, and murder whichRead MoreCapital Punishment And The Death Penalty1539 Words   |  7 PagesCapital punishment, otherwise known as the death penalty, has been the center of debate for a long time. Capital punishment may be defined as the â€Å"[e]xecution of an offender sentenced to death after conviction by a court of law of a criminal offense† (Capital Punishment). Up until 1846, when Michigan became the first to abolish the death sentence, all states allowed legal practice of capital punishment by the government (States). Currently, there 32 states still supporting the death penalty and 18Read MoreThe Death Penalty Of Capital Punishment1480 Words   |  6 Pagesjustice system, such as the death penalty. Capital punishment has been used many times in history all around the world, and it was quite popular. Many people argue that capital punishment is useful in deterring crime and that it is only fair that criminals receive death as punishment for a heinous crim e. On the contrary, others see the death penalty as a violation of the 8th amendment. It restricts excessive fines, and it also does not allow cruel and unusual punishment to be inflicted upon criminals

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Job Satisfaction And Employee Turnover - 1348 Words

Job satisfaction is a highly complex mixture of individual perceptions and individual rewards. Job dissatisfaction often leads to employee turnover which is costly financially, frustrating to unit managers, and also detrimental in regard to patient care and outcomes. Maintaining registered nurse (RN) job satisfaction is directly related to staffing levels (Kalisch Hee Lee, 2014). Teamwork and collaboration between all medical staff members can increase job satisfaction and provide better outcomes in patient care. Absence of teamwork and communication can result from cultural and rank barriers (McCulloch, Rathbone, Catchpole, 2011). Several studies have been performed to measure job satisfaction in nursing staff, but the aim of this study examines the links between actual unit-level staffing and job satisfaction of RNs and nursing assistants (NAs) (Kalisch Hee Lee, 2014) in order to identify factors that lead to employee turnover. The first question the researchers were interested in states, â€Å"What is the relationship between staffing and job satisfaction of RNs and NAs controlling for demographic variables and patient acuity?† The second research question states, â€Å"Are there any differences as to the significant predictors for job satisfaction between RNs and NAs?† The RNs and NAs were surveyed using a questionnaire to rate job satisfaction while also providing demographic data. The researchers used 131 patient care units in 11 different hospitals based in Michigan andShow MoreRelatedHow Does Job Satisfaction Affect Employee Turnover? Essay1885 Words   |  8 PagesHow does job satisfaction affect Employee turnover? Introduction Employee withdraw, also known as employee turnover is always a topic that is often brought up in research, especially in the areas of organisational behaviour and industrial psychology. â€Å"Beginning with the early studies of Bernays (1910) and Crabb (1912) and continuing to the present, well over 1,000 separate studies on the subject can be identified,† (Richard Richard, 1979, p. 1) however, only less than 20% of the in turnover varianceRead MoreThe Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Employee Turnover Rate2093 Words   |  9 PagesThe Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Employee Turnover Rate Introduction Adelphoi Village is a private, non- profit company that provide community based services to children and adolescents in the Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland and West Virginia area. Adelphoi Village provides programs and services that strive to guide each youth on a path that will provide meaning, purpose and value in his/her life. Founded in 1971, Adelphoi Village has expanded to serve over 800 youth in 60 differentRead MoreThe Relation Between Job Satisfaction, Absenteeism, and Employee Turnover1720 Words   |  7 Pagesfor an organisation to be successful, it has to invest substantially into the domain of people skills, and their behaviour. Due to stressful working environment, many organisations loose employees due to lack of motivation, stress, lower employee job satisfaction and other contributing factors of behavioural sciences and psychology. All these factors have negative effects on the organisation and organizational behaviour simultaneously. Many experts are in concord t hat all these factors create disorientedRead MoreTypes of Attitude1169 Words   |  5 Pagesstudy of job-related attitudes. OB specifically focuses on three attitudes: job satisfaction, job involvement and organizational commitment Job satisfaction In the field of OB, job satisfaction is one of the most important and widely studied attitudes. Job satisfaction refers to an individual s general attitude towards his or her job. It has been described by Edwin A. Locke as the pleasurable or positive emotional state that results when an individual evaluates his job or job experience. Job satisfactionRead More2.1.6.2 Functional And Dysfunctional Turnover. Functional1493 Words   |  6 Pages2.1.6.2 Functional and dysfunctional turnover Functional turnover can be defined as â€Å"a turnover in which poor performers leave† while Dysfunctional turnover can be defined as â€Å"a turnover in which good performers leave† (Abdali, 2011). The poor performer employee can leave the organization in any means and this situation is functional turnover because, the poor performer employees can be invaluable for the organization. When these poor performer employees leave the organization, the company can benefitedRead MoreJob Dissatisfaction Is A Result Of Turnover Intention Among Nashua City Employees852 Words   |  4 Pages Job Dissatisfaction is a Result of Employee Turnover Intention among Nashua City Employees The topic of my study is ‘Job dissatisfaction is a result of turnover intention among Nashua City employees.’ My study is significant because it will look at some issues that are negatively impacting non-management employees in the Works Division of the City of Nashua, resulting in poor performance. Although turnover intention is cited as one of the many factors associated with job dissatisfactionRead MoreMotivation : Motivation And Motivation Essay1070 Words   |  5 Pagesthat is performed for its own sake is intrinsically motivated and behavior that is performed to acquire material or social rewards or to avoid punishment is extrinsically motivated. Examples of extrinsic motivators are salary, working conditions and job security, while opportunities to use one s own initiative and creativity are examples of intrinsic motivators. - The vast diversity of people and the complexity of their behavior have led to a broad range and variety of motivation theories. The purposeRead MoreEssay on Htm 150 Wk 4 Assignment 1 Employee Turnover799 Words   |  4 PagesHTM 150 WK 4 ASSIGNMENT 1 EMPLOYEE TURNOVER To purchase this visit here: http://www.activitymode.com/product/htm-150-wk-4-assignment-1-employee-turnover/ Contact us at: SUPPORT@ACTIVITYMODE.COM HTM 150 WK 4 ASSIGNMENT 1 EMPLOYEE TURNOVER HTM 150 WK 4 Assignment 1 - Employee Turnover Employee turnover in the hospitality industry averages 400% annually. This means that, on average, 100% of the staff of a restaurant, hotel, airline, cruise ship, etc. is replaced four (4) times per yearRead MoreEmployee Satisfaction1221 Words   |  5 Pagesinvolves the job satisfaction and employee engagement of a spa company’s workforce called Bella. The case depicts a new general manager Kris Jenkins’s concern that Bella’s numbers had deteriorated dramatically in the past year. Profits were down; absenteeism was up; turnover, while not dramatic, was higher than it had been in the past five years. This report shows how important the employee engagement to bring job satisfaction which overall leads a company with a less absenteeism, low turnover rates; ultimatelyRead MoreEmployee Job Satisfaction Has A Large Impact On Their Organization806 Words   |  4 PagesEmployee job satisfaction has a large impact on their organization. Employees being dissatisfied can lead to high turnover, higher absenteeism, affect their overall job performance, and impact custo mer satisfaction (Robbins Judge, 2009 pp 87-89). This post will discuss the impact job satisfaction has in regards to organizational citizenship behavior and employee engagement. Causes of Job Satisfaction There are several factors that influence an employee’s satisfaction in their

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Petrol Station Culture Within The Global Architectural Landscape Free Essays

string(70) " unit area on the premiss to introduce the extremist metropolis type\." Fill’er Up: gasoline station civilization within the planetary architectural landscape Abstraction: ( concise summery – no more than 10 sentence ) Merely as man’s ability to multiply text and administer it around the around the universe bore a new epoch so did his ability to refile gasolene and globalized it 4 centuries subsequently. With all their velocity forward they may be a measure rearward in civilization – that is, in religious civilization. It may be that they will non add to the beauty of the universe, nor to the life of men’s psyches. We will write a custom essay sample on Petrol Station Culture Within The Global Architectural Landscape or any similar topic only for you Order Now I am non certain. But cars have come, and they bring a greater alteration in our life than most of us suspect. â€Å" I ‘m non certain he ‘s incorrect about cars, † he said. â€Å" With all their velocity forward they may be a measure rearward in civilization—that is, in religious civilisation. It may be that they will non add to the beauty of the universe, nor to the life of work forces ‘s psyche. I am non certain. But cars have come, and they bring a greater alteration in our life than most of us suspect. They are here, and about all outward things are traveling to be different because of what they bring. They are traveling to change war, and they are traveling to change peace. I think work forces ‘s heads are traveling to be changed in elusive ways because of cars ; merely how, though, I could barely think. But you ca n’t hold the huge outward alterations that they will do without some inward 1s, and it may be that George is right, and that the religious change will be bad for us. Possibly, ten or twenty old ages from now, if we can see the inw ard alteration in work forces by that clip, I should n’t be able to support the gasolene engine, but would hold to hold with him that cars ‘had no concern to be invented. ‘ † ~Booth Tarkington, The Magnificent Ambersons, 1917 In 1942 Orson Welles wrote and directed an acclaimed movie version of the book Bourgeois enthusiasm 1950 – 60 s fuelling station design was inspired by a businessperson enthusiasm for travel velocity, freedom, main roads and new car design Lent novel attributes to go, doing it an exciting stimulating experience. Today exhilaration about the freedom of independent travel in one’s ain auto has changed to indifference and annoyance. Congestion and long drilling distances along a monotonously efficient main road, every bit good as the entire dependence upon the auto as a agency of effectual travel have changed the psychological science of travel from escapade to frenetic haste from point A to point B. This alteration is besides reflected in the design of fuelling Stationss. Rather than outstations chiefly serving the auto ( normally with an associated workshop ) , extremist metropoliss attempt to supply ace efficient points of repose functioning commuters. In an effort to germinate the design of main road Stationss, with the altering psychological science of travel, fuell ing companies have responded by maximizing efficiency of service and agreeableness in an attempt to supply a ‘calming’ environment in which to pass money. The workshops, dirt and oil have disappeared, clean and healthful lavatories, shadowing workss and lawn purpose to make oases along ‘inhospitable’ terrain. I will mention to this type as extremist metropolis, since this term speaks of the. as yet. unfulfilled possible it holds. Ultra Cities This type has held my attending, since it depends strongly on the high flows along another planetary phenomenon – the expressway, Autobahn, main road – strips of practical urbanism cutting through rural and urban landscape. In the South African context the main road has diverted flows from the high streets of towns and little metropoliss. The concern and informal endeavor reacting in portion to the visitants and commuters go throughing through have lost their backing, which is now catered for by ‘ultra cities’ competing for attending along the main road. Having none of the dynamic and character of the high street, this type performs as an unnaturally deep-rooted mini-urbanity. In rural countries the most up to day of the month consumer points in a 200km radius are offered. The extremist metropolis ‘s purely regulated transiency, nevertheless has prevented it from going a node around which local endeavor could turn and profit in a meaningful manner. Owing to the extremely competitory nature of the fuel industry, certain interesting developments have taken topographic point, puting bare a scope of potencies to be explored. thestandardizationof a peculiar image uninterrupted alterationof extra programme in the face of high fight the flawlessnessof a certain scientifically-based layout to guarantee smooth traffic handling and gross revenues extra comfortsssuch as eating houses, telephones, local home-made nutrient industry and jumping palaces local industryand markets are incorporated in certain instances ‘Sky decks ‘ , suspended eating houses, etc have been developed to understate doubling of plan and instill involvement in users different nutrient franchisesand local concern cater for a diverse patronage ( tourers, locals, taxis ) Contemporary developments include more programmatic options, making a wider scope of commercial maps for the commuter to prosecute with, every bit good as limited chances of single local endeavor. Transience is foisted on the commuter through a disregard in topographic point devising. This transiency, in portion is enforced by ordinances, but besides through the high turnover demands in pumping fuel. Any topographic point doing attempt or extra plan can be understood as devices helping higher fuel gross revenues. This position is held by fuel houses, since it is their concern to sell fuel merely. Thus the extremist metropolis has deserved as small enthusiasm as modern-day travel. A realization is clicking: better agreeableness and wider programmatic pick ( in the signifier of franchises ) , finally benefit fuel gross revenues in the face of highcompetition. It is besides for this ground that a site along the N1 on the border of Bloemfontein has been chosen, where several fuelling Stationss already thrive on high commuter flows. This scenario puts force per unit area on the premiss to introduce the extremist metropolis type. You read "Petrol Station Culture Within The Global Architectural Landscape" in category "Essay examples" The potency of the extremist metropolis as deep-rootedextremely accessible mini urbanitycan now be realised. In a sense a limited country or instead one point along the main road becomes acongested prosaic urbancircuit ( accessed by auto ) ; an alternate development to the congestion of the old high street. In a periphery status of a metropolis, an break along a limited entree main road becomes an interesting point, where thepotencies of fringe, main road, and high commuter flowsbecomeconcentratedIn Bloemfontein ‘s instance, a civic, political and cultural aspiration demands to be taken into full history, since this edifice will necessarily in its remarkable being as urban grounds along the N1 go an icon to the metropolis of Bloemfontein. Hybrid energy It has become accepted, that most extremist metropoliss cater in a bland mode for conventional in-between category commuters caught up in vacation, concern or day-to-day rites in which travel is a necessary load. Peoples are prepared to halt at the locale affording most convenience in fuelling, utilizing ablutions, eating fast nutrient and drawing out once more, – a short break on their journeys Can a new exhilaration be created where people choose to linger for a piece, take notice of a landscape, engage with a programme non strictly commercial, but one which allows for rest of head and organic structure before go forthing refreshed and stimulated, non irritated? Could such a topographic point be really successful commercially every bit good, and pull a wider scope of people for different grounds? A certain extremist metropolis near Harrysmith is frequented by locals. It offers an environment set in a beautiful landscape and assorted shopping, good feeding and relaxation installations. Some South Africans take their nuptials exposure in forepart of extremist metropoliss, since, in certain countries, they sport the lone piece of accessible landscaped garden as puting A new fuelling station in Midrand proposes a diner over the main road as a meeting point for executives. These observations point to place-making potency achieved through the programmatic enlargement of fuelling sites and an integrating with landscape and recognition of a wider context. This attack no uncertainty begs for an all inclusive, long term vision, which fuel pools seem to be tenuously developing towards in coaction with assorted local endeavors and national franchises. In planetary bad tendencies – programmatic barrage is employed to make concentrated, diverse enclaves in which the different maps are reciprocally prolonging to bring forth big user attending. Interesting bad undertakings like the one in Kempton Park, where amega-casinoandhotel composite includes the proviso ofacultural installation– atheaterandmuseum.( This vision was put frontward by Caesar ‘s Palace fromLas Vegas,whohave theresources to colonize the site. ) Performance The extremist metropolis has everything to make with public presentation. It has to show a extremely seeable option in fast moving traffic. Large flows of commuters need to be handled expeditiously and swimmingly. Commuters need to be safely guided on and off, through and out The main road needs to stay efficient in its limited entree. Today thepublic presentationof architecture has become more of import than itssignifier. Efficiency in managing big flows of traffic or users, entree, services, etc. , are standards, which dominate architecture of a certain graduated table Theensuing signifieris so frequently dad in a peculiar manner ( e.g. in historical attire ) , in entire antithesis to its contents. Alternatively the scientific factors of design frequently become aesthetic generators in their ain right, paying court to our machine and information age. What is frequently forgotten is human experience, which is thought plenty to be reduced to the answering of a set of NEUFERTS informations. The most powerful potency of architecture, to my head, is the power it has in suggesting future ways of life in our universe. Informed by the present position quo, New programmatic combinations can be set up enabling assorted maps and different users be brought together in new life, working, recreational and learning dealingss. Since we, and everything around us are invariably germinating, so should we as interior decorators in order to non simply reply to complex modern-day demands In our undertakings we can integrate an apprehension of a jutting hereafter world. In this manner we become proactive alternatively of reactive in playing out the portion we have in determining our environment. The auto Today autos are designed as swimmingly moulded capsules enveloping their users, protecting them on the inhospitable terrain of high ] speed travel. In the same sense a edifice following to or over the main road shelters its users from noise and danger while reacting to the captivation of watching ‘the universe shoot by* . The edifice performs on a figure of other degrees ; opening up to protected landscapes, reacting to climate, positions, spread outing and undertaking to let for assorted events, etc This premiss aids in building a edifice which performs a fraudulence of maps, triggers associations, creates awareness – here architecture’s public presentation transcends that of the auto in making antiphonal topographic points. Its building reflects these potencies in the same mode as does that of the auto, but besides reacts to its context with which it ties in and at the same clip separates itself from. Procedure Since covering with a national, even planetary phenomenon, it became evident, that this type can ‘land’ anyplace, where high traffic flows warrant it The higher these flows the more extremist inventions are justified, in order to vie with the, necessarily, already bing Stationss or possible future rivals These scenarios proved intriguing to me and pointed in the way of a future vision of the type and an probe into the nature of the main road. I decided to ship on a figure of geographic expeditions of different possible context for the extremist metropolis type. I anticipated, that these exercisings would inform each other and assist me happen a specific site and develop a brief How to cite Petrol Station Culture Within The Global Architectural Landscape, Essay examples

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Health Care Adequate Medical Care Services

Question: Write an essay on "performance in healthcare sector". Answer: Health improvement greatly depends on primary health care services. It is vital to have an adequate medical care services to enhance the overall health of the population. The comparison of health care management in two different countries might help identify the factors needed to boost up the role of the health care systems in these and other countries that are burdened with high mortality rate, low health status and other related issues. The essay welcomes an opportunity to perform a comparative study on Australia and Canada, in reference to its performance in health care sector. The reason to choose these provinces is that these countries have played a key role in developing a new model in health care organisation. The author will perform a thorough literature search, to analyze several areas of health care such as the governance system, funding system, health indicators, and the performance in health system and the percentage of GDP spent on health. The essay will demonstrate the health care system of the two countries by discussing each of these parameters. The essay will end in conclusion based on the research findings of the study. The leadership and management is the core of the governance in health sector. The rich mix of practitioners, clinicians, policy makers and politicians in health system deals with life and death issues with changing technology and elevating costs. These are the heart of the system which when put together raises governance problems which are sensitive than any other sector. In Australia, both the government and the private based health organisations exist, which provide wide range of services worldwide (Eijkenaar et al., 2013). This province has six states and two territories. The country provides free medical treatment and financial assistance, since the introduction of Medicare, in 1984 (Walls et al., 2012). The universal taxation system funds most of these services (Bourke et al., 2012). Australia is a federated system with equal division of power between the state and central government in health care related matters (Mossialos et al., 2015). Australia is having a commonwealth government, to support the revenue for fiscal transfers and the heath care system, with the main authority being the government in raising the revenue (Papanicolas et al., 2013). The five year health agreements have consolidated improved the commonwealth powers. The health care system in Australia is versatile with its equal distribution of its role and responsibilities in different states of the country (Oderkirk et al., 2013). There is a complex interplay of services in private and public organisation. In Australia, 52 % of the elderly population (above 65 years) possess health insurances, which are estimated to be 1.84 million. It also reflects the total number of population above 65 years old (Kassebaum et al., 2014). Therefore, it indicates the fact that Australia is prepared with effective health care services for older patients, increasing their health insurances (Schoen et al., 2012). The early governance system in Australia is quite different. Then the local governments played a little role in health care provision. Postcolonial settlements changed the scenario when only subscription fees were the finance. Doctors worked in Canada and other states as entrepreneurs. In Canada, there exist a public funded and a cost free health care system. Private institutions provide most of the medical services (Schfer et al., 2015). The quality assurance of the care delivered comes from the government through its federal standards (Schfer et al., 2015). There is no data collection on a daily basis pertaining to the individuals health. The health administration maintains its simplicity by maintaining the provision of cost effective services based on the Medicare system (Nicholson et al., 2012). Out of the total health care associated finances, 30% accounts for the private health expenditure. Canada follows a Single-payer healthcare system (Janssen, 2013). In this system, the state does not pay the cost of the healthcare rather it is taken care by the private insurers. Public as a whole or in part financially supports the single-payer system (Walls et al., 2012). Overall provinces continue to dominate in Canada with new emerging model for taking national initia tives. In Canada, there exists a federal based governance system (Schfer et al., 2015). Although one can expect the governance to have centralised characteristics, the actual scenario is somewhat opposite. The countrys provincial government system deals with formulating laws and regulations specifically for a region. On the other hand, the federal system governs the whole province (Foroughi et al., 2016). The governance system of Australia and Canada has evolved to be similar. The government rule in Australia mandates every individual to caste his or her vote in election, failure of which is punishable (Mossialos et al., 2015). There is a close resemblance in the government system of Australia and Canada pertaining to their British parliamentary system (Turner et al., 2013). The fact that reflects this resemblance is that both the provinces are under the membership of British commonwealth (Schoen et al., 2012). The two countries are further compared to assess any differences present in the health indicators such as low birth weight, asthma, obesity, infant mortality rate, hypertension, maternal mortality rate, life expectancy at birth and cancer. The maternal mortality rate refers to number of deaths of pregnant women due to associated complications and termination of pregnancy per 1000,000, live births. It occurs within the period of 42 days (Schfer et al., 2015). While studying the global maternal death it was found that in Australia, maternal mortality is found to occur rarely. The reports of (Papanicolas et al., 2013) showed that there were 102 maternal deaths in the time span of 2008-2012. This represents the ratio of 7.1 per 100,000 women who had successfully delivered babies (Oderkirk et al., 2013). These deaths lead to mental distress among other women. The maternal mortality rate in Canada was found to be 6.0 per 10,000 deliveries, taken into study the time span of 2008-2010 (Eijkenaar et al., 2013). Later, in the year 2010-2011 it was observed that majority of the deaths were due to cardiovascular diseases, mental disorders, neurological ad digestive problems (Walls et al., 2012). Infant mortality rate was the next health indictor used to compare both the countries. It refers to number of deaths per 1000 live births occurring before an infant completes one year (Janssen, 2013). According to the reports of (Kassebaum et al., 2014) in 2012, around 1034 infant death cases were registered in Australia. It was decrease by the percentage of 8.8 found in year 2010. There is a significant improvement in the infant death rate. There was a mild fluctuation observed since the year 2002, that reported 1270 deaths, which is reduced to 1044 in the year 2012 (Mossialos et al., 2015). In Canada, in 2008 the number of infant deaths, before the age of one was recorded to be 4.9 per 1000 live births. Canada ranks second in the world in terms of infant mortality rate (Eijkenaar et al., 2013). (Source: https://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.country.country-AUS?lang=en)The other indicator for describing the health condition of the population is Life Expectancy at Birth. It indicates the mortality rate of the population (Marchildon, 2013). It determines the life span of the individual as per their age and specific rate of death. This parameter has improved for the public in Australia. According to this method, a man born in 2011-2013 would survive for 82 years, whereas a female would survive for 86 years. These number changes to 45.6 and 49.1 years if they are born in 1882-1890 (Janssen, 2013). On contrary, a male born in Canada in 2013, would survive for 83 years and females for 86 years. For both the genders, the life expectancy at birth seems to be augmented from 74 to 80 in the year 1990 to 2012 (Kassebaum et al., 2014). In Australia, the life expectancy decreases with increasing remoteness. Therefore, in indigenous population, the Torres Strait Islanders experienced worse h ealth than any other communities did (Walls et al., 2012). The aboriginals in Canada are in much better position than aboriginals in Australian. Figure: Life Expectancy at Birth in Austarlia Health status refers to the state of physical and mental well being. As per (Marchildon, 2013) Australia is recognised to be one of the healthiest countries in the world. The rate of diseases and associated death occurs rarely in this country (Lecours Bland, 2013). In comparison to Canada, it has low mortality rate. It further augmented the rate of morbidity. Canada receives a B grade, with respect to its overall health performance (Turner et al., 2013). As per the reports of (Marchildon, 2013) Canada stands third in terms of mortality rate. The number of deaths is mainly associated with diabetes and its incidence rate is found to increase (Eijkenaar et al., 2013). Therefore, it has turn out to be a major health concern for the administrators, stakeholders and policy makers. Canada receives A grade in the category of premature mortality, mortality due to circulatory diseases and self-reported health (Kassebaum et al., 2014). It receives B grade in the category of mortality due to re spiratory diseases, life expectancy, mortality due to medical accidents and mortality due to mental disorders (Janssen, 2013).Australia has 5% births resulting in infants with low weight at birth. There were, 17,654 infants born with low weight, which is a percentage of 6.12 (Osborn Squires, 2012). As a result of indigenous population, in Australia, there were 3950 babies born with low weight during the period of 2000-2002. However, in Canada the babies born with low weight constitutes 5.3%. This data was constant during the period of 1980-2010 (Deber, 2014).Since last three decades, there is a growing incidence of obesity and associated complications in Australia (Foroughi et al., 2016). During the time of 2010-2011, 64% of the adult population in Australia were recognised with obesity. In the year 2009, 24% of the children in the age range 3-15 were identified to be obese and overweight (Lecours Bland, 2013). As per the data records of Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), in the year 2010, the rate of obesity might increase by 67% in coming years for all the age groups (Mossialos et al., 2015). Whereas, in Canada, the study by Deber, (2014) show that one in four adults and one in 10 children suffer from obesity. This accounts for total population of six million. Therefore, it implies for serious health management programs for combating weight gain issues. Canada is in 33rd position in terms of having overweight citizens (Smith et al., 2012). The percentage of the citizens having body mass of 25 in Canada comprises of 60.2% (Nicholson et al., 2012). This percentage has increased since 2006 in children, where the frequency in males was found to be 4-15% and the percentage increase in females showed 3-14% (Smith et al., 2012).As per the statistical data collected by Australian Health Survey, in the year 2010-2011, the Australian adults diagnosed with diabetes were reported to be 9,22,000 (Kassebaum et al., 2014). These individuals we re mainly comprised of age above 20 years. Both type I and type II diabetes is prevalent in this population group. Only 3% of the total population in Australia showed no diabetes and some were unaware of the prevailing condition. 6% of the population reported of their diabetes (Osborn Squires, 2012). The condition in Canada is slightly different. Majority of the patients with diabetes has difficulty in adhering to their medication due to high cost of treatment (Tchouaket et al., 2012). According to the survey conducted by Canadian Diabetes Association, 36% of the patients suffering from diabetes resist from revealing their condition due to social stigma and inferiority complex (Marchildon, 2013). Asthma is the common health issues in Australia with one tenth of individual effect by it. It is commonly found in males and females of age 15 and above (Sussman et al., 2012). The incidence rate of asthma is high in indigenous group in comparison to non-indigenous Australians (Tchouaket et al., 2012). It mainly effects and prominent in the elderly people in remote areas and those with low socioeconomic status and poor living conditions (Turner et al., 2013). A thorough literature research shows that the prevalence of diabetes has increased in Canada since the last two decades (Smith et al., 2012). Although there is a serious effort to ameliorate this issue, one death per two days is observed. The report of hypertension may not be accurate as it was observed in the case of diabetes; Canadians do not self-report about their health issues, although simple remedies can easily cure hypertension. These categories of people constitute around 5% of the total Canadians (Nicholson et al., 201 2).There is a growing concern in Australia, due to increase in cancer cases. In the year 2012, the total number of cancer cases registered was found to be 124,153. The male patients (69,030) were more in number than females (55,123). In 2013, there were 467 cases reported out of every one-lakh individuals for age- standardized occurrence rate. It is estimated that the incidences of cancer will be rising by next decade (Lecours Bland, 2013). The situation is almost same in Canada. The rate of cancer is increasing at an alarming rate. In Canada, there is an increase in three-year occurrence ratio with yearly rate of 3.2% from 1998-2009 and 3.4% that of the five year occurrence ratio, whereas the ten year occurrence ratio was found to be 3.8% ((Nicholson et al., 2012). Figure: Global cancer rates Australian Government along with the state and territory government has taken initiative for performance measurement (Walls et al., 2012). It requires assessing through the health indicators. This step enables that the quality and safety of the health services are improved (Lecours Bland, 2013). Thus, it will help identify any changes that need to be implemented in filling the gap. It requires significant contribution from administrators, taxpayers, stakeholders, health care providers and other contributors. In Australia, some nationally acclaimed bodies function to measure the diverse components of the organisation (Smith et al., 2012).The major concern in Canada remains to be diabetes, which is leading towards the third highest rate of mortality (Tchouaket et al., 2012). Canada is graded B for its health performance. Canada stands third in the terms of mortality rate. The number of deaths is mainly associated with diabetes and its incidence rate is found to increase (Eijkenaar et al., 2013). Therefore, it has turn out to be a major health concern for the administrators, stakeholders and policy makers. Canada receives A grade in the category of premature mortality, mortality due to circulatory diseases and self-reported health (Kassebaum et al., 2014). It receives B grade in the category of mortality due to respiratory diseases, life expectancy, mortality due to medical accidents and mortality due to mental disorders (Janssen, 2013). Australias health expenditure measured as the percentage of GDP in 2010 was observed to be lesser than Canada (Smith et al., 2012). In the year 2011-2012, hospitals were the leading cause of the health expenditure. Hospitals comprise to be 97% of the total area in health expenditure with other being miscellaneous purposes such as new buildings. 20% of the health expenditure constitutes of the medical services. This includes services in acute care facilities, primary health facilities and that provided by general practitioners (Le cours Bland, 2013). Drugs and other chemicals comprises of 14%, dental services constitutes to be of 7% (Sussman et al., 2012). On the contrary, the health expenditure in Canada, in 2013 was calculated to be 11.8% of the total gross domestic product (Brown et al., 2014). It is observed to be 1.6% above than the average set by the OECD, which is 9.5% (Foroughi et al., 2016). Compared to Australia, Canada has a lesser health expenditure. In all most all of the OECD countries, public institutions mainly provide the funding (Deber, 2014). Two countries that are exceptional to these funding includes United States and Chile (Fineberg et al., 2012). In Canada the public source, financing contributes to 75% of the health expenditure as reported in 2012. Here it is less than the average of 74% set by the OECD (Eijkenaar et al., 2013). In conclusion, it can be said that the comparative study related to the health care system in Australia and Canada, has clearly highlighted the governance system, funding system and the overall performance in health system. The essay has clearly discussed the health indicators such as mortality rate, health status, and life expectancy at birth, the prevalence of obesity, asthma, hypertension, diabetes, and cancer. The essay also provides the percentage of GDP expended on health. There is a high similarity between both the chosen countries. Both Australia and Canada were found to have efficient, safe and effective health care services. In both the countries the main objective of regionalisation was to accomplish greater accuracy and efficiency in consumption of health care resources and decrease the cost of escalation. The issue of governance involving the public participation in decision system is paid less attention in Australia. The public opinion is different from the decision of more state involvement in health operations. It can be said based on the literature review that Compared to Canadians the Australians are more apathetic in regards to reformation of public institutions and structures. However, they both lack behind when compared with other countries in terms of their advancement in health sector. Both these provinces must enhance their medical care services, as health is the foundation of healthy nation. Australia ranks higher than Canada in all of the indicators but is lower than Germany and U.S. In Australia, the life expectancy decreases with increasing remoteness. Therefore, in indigenous population, the Torres Strait Islanders experienced worse health than any other communities did (Walls et al., 2012). The aboriginals in Canada were in much better position than aboriginals in Australian. Australia must overcome its health service discrimination between the Indigenous and non-indigenous Australians. In Canada, the patient first approach should be more focused on rather than on different governing structures. Both the above countries have underwent several health reforms since last two days, there still remains a challenge in rising costs and workforce related to health care. These issues need to be paid more attention. Overall, it was an interesting area to work on. This comparative study has given a clear concept on the healthcare management of Australia and Canada and there scenarios in past and present. The literature review was interesting as it gave a deep insight of the subject. References Bourke, L., Humphreys, J. S., Wakerman, J., Taylor, J. (2012). Understanding rural and remote health: a framework for analysis in Australia.Health Place,18(3), 496-503. Brown, S., Castelli, M., Hunter, D. J., Erskine, J., Vedsted, P., Foot, C., Rubin, G. (2014). How might healthcare systems influence speed of cancer diagnosis: A narrative review.Social Science Medicine,116, 56-63. Deber, R. B. (2014). Thinking about accountability.Healthcare policy= Politiques de sante,10(Spec issue), 12-24. Eijkenaar, F., Emmert, M., Scheppach, M., Schffski, O. (2013). Effects of pay for performance in health care: a systematic review of systematic reviews.Health.

Sunday, March 22, 2020

Social inequality free essay sample

Teaching Schedule for the Course on: SOCIAL STRATIFICATION Semester: January – April, 2014 Instructor: Satyapriya Rout, Department of Sociology, UoH Month: January Week Class Topic Suggested Readings I (Jan. 6 – 10) 1 An introduction to stratification analysis Daniel W. Rossides, Social Stratification (chapter – 1) 2 Meaning and Nature of Stratification Melvin Tumin, Social Stratification II (Jan 13 – 17) 3 Stratification Through history Daniel W. Rossides, Social Stratification (chapter – 2) 4 How societies generate stratification Melvin Tumin, Social Stratification (Chapter – 3,4,5) III (Jan. 20 – 24) 5 Interrogating Inequality Erik Olin Wright, Interrogating Inequality (Chapter – 1) 6 Introduction to Class Analysis – classic inheritance its debate Rosemary Crompton, Class and Stratification (Ch. – 1,2) IV (Jan 27 – 31) 7 Theories of class Structure – Marx Benedix Lipset, Class, Status and Power (Sec – 1) 8 Weber – Class, status, party Benedix Lipset, Class, Status and Power (Sec – 1) Month February V (Feb. 3 – 7) 9 Inequality and Social Structure – comparison of Marx and Weber Erik Olin Wright. 2002. ‘The Shadow of Exploitation in Weber’s Class Analysis’, American Sociological Review, Vol. 67, No. 6, 832 – 53. Reinhard Bendix. We will write a custom essay sample on Social inequality or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page 1974. ‘Inequality and Social Structure: A Comparison of Marx and Weber’, American Sociological Review, Vol. 39, No. 2, 149 – 61. Val Burris. 1987. ‘The Neo-Marxist Synthesis of Marx and Weber on Class’. In Norbert Wiley (ed.) The Marx – Weber Debate, Newbury Park: Sage (chapter – 3) 10 Marx and Weber – Exploitation and Dominance FIRST INTERNAL TEST – BOOK REVIEW VI (Feb10 – 14) 11 Does Class Matter – Reshaping and Dissolution of Class in Advanced Society Jan Pakulski Malcom Waters. 1996. ‘Reshaping and Dissolution of Class in Advance Society’, Theory and Society, Vol. 25 (5), 667 91 12 Does Class Matter – The continuing relevance of class E. O. Wright. 1996. ‘Continuing Relevance of Class Analysis’, Theory and Society, Vol. 25 (5), 693 716 VII (Feb. 17 -21) 13 Stratification – A functionalist perspective Kingsley Davis. 1942. A conceptual analysis of stratification, Americal Sociological Review, 7: 309 – 321, Kingsley and Moore in Benedix Lipset, Class, Status and Power 14 Some principles of stratification – A Critical perspective Tumin, in Benedix Lipset, Class, Status and Power VIII (Feb. 24 – 28) 15 Hierarchy and Difference – Dipankar Gupta Dipankar Gupta, in Gupta (ed.) Social Stratification 16 Some emerging issues in the Indian social stratification Yogendra Singh in K L Sharma (ed.) Social Stratification in India Month March IX (Mar 3 – 7) 17 Inequality Among Men – I (hierarchies of status) Andre Beteille. Inequality Among Men 18 Inequality Among Men – II (distribution of power SECOND INTERNAL TEST – ASSIGNMENT ON ‘CONCEPTUAL AND THEORETICAL APPROACHES IN UNDERSTANDING INEQUALITY’ X (Mar 10 – 14) 19Â  Hierarchy, Status and Power: The Caste System and its implications Louise Dumont, in Dipankar Gupta (ed) Social Stratification 20 Continuous Hierarchies and Discrete Castes Dipankar Gupta, in Gupta (ed.) Social Stratification XI (Mar 17 – 21) 21 Caste and Class in India: Some Conceptual problems K. L Sharma, in Sharma (ed) Social Stratification in India 22 Kerala Christians and the Caste System C.J Fuller in Gupta (ed.) Social Stratification XII (Mar24 – 28) 23 Agrarian Class Structure in India Daniel Thorner and DN Dhanagare in Gupta (ed.) Social Stratification 24 Agrarian Class and political mobilisation in India T. K. Oommen, in Sharma (ed) Social Stratification in India Month April XIII (March 31 – April 4) 25 Tribe as a category in stratification analysis Andre Beteille, 1986. ‘Concept of tribe with special reference to India’. European Journal of Sociology Virginius Xaxa. ‘Tribes as Indigenous People of India’, EPW 26 Tribal Identity and Class Differentiation Ghanshyam Saha, in Gupta (ed.) Social Stratification THIRD INTERNAL TEST (WRITTEN) XIV (Apr 7 – 11) 27 Reference Group Theory and Social Mobility R. K. Merton, in Lipset Benexix (ed.) Class, Status and Power 28 Mobility in Caste System/Some expressions of caste mobility M N Srinivas in Gupta (ed.) Social Stratification M N Srinivas, Social Change in Modern India (ch. 3) XV (Apr 14 – 18) 29 Caste, Class and Social Mobility among the SCs K. L Sharma, in Sharma (ed.) Social Stratification and Mobility 30 Gender and Stratification In Anthony Giddens, Sociology XVI (Apr 21 – 25) 31 Caste and Women Leela Dubey in M.N.Srinivas (ed.) Caste: In Its 20th century Avatar 32 Gender in the Making of the Indian Nation-State Maitrayee Chaudhuri in Sharmila Rege (ed.) Sociology of Gender FINAL SEMESTER EXAMINATION

Thursday, March 5, 2020

Smart Cars, Speaks of the TravTek navigationsystem installed in Oldsmobile Toronados

Smart Cars, Speaks of the TravTek navigationsystem installed in Oldsmobile Toronados Answer A :The TravTek navigationsystem is installed in 100 Oldsmobile Toronados, thevisual part of the system is a computer monitor. Through detailed colour maps, itleads the driver through the town. The map changes all the time, cause a computerconnected to a navigation-satellite, and with a magnetic compass installed, calculatesthe fastest or easiest way to your destination. When yellow circles appear in aparticular place on the screen, it means that there is traffic jam here, or there has beenan accident on the spot. The computer receives this information from the TrafficManagement Centre, and it quickly points an alternative route out.b:The driver interact with the system through the so called 'touch screen'. 7000buisnesses in the area are already listed in the computer, and you can point out yourdestination by searching through a lot of menus until you find it, or simply by typingthe name of the street.English: Length of traffic jams on 6 jan 2010when the place you want to go ar e registered you push the makedestination button, and the computer programmes a route, the second after the routeappears on the screen, while a voice explains it to you through the loudspeaker.c:The TravTek guides the driver through the traffic. The computer always knowswhere you are, and the navigation system makes it impossible to get lost in the traffic,unless you really want to, and deliberately make the wrong turns. It also guides youpast traffic jams and problems who might crop up around an accident. In a townwhere you have never been, you will quickly be able to find your way to hotels,restaurants, sports arenas, shops and much more, just by looking through the variousmenus of the TravTek.d:The text definitely prefers the accuracy of...

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

WOMANS SUFFRAGE MOVMENT Annotated Bibliography Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

WOMANS SUFFRAGE MOVMENT - Annotated Bibliography Example t ran a historical analysis of this occurrence and allowed for a biopic into how women’s suffrage has impacted the United States and the world since that time. Although it is clear that the United States was not the first system to allow women’s suffrage, the article argues for the fact that its global position of power and dominance helped to spread this practice and acceptance faster than it would otherwise have been spread. Similar to the 100th anniversary discussion that was engaged, the 75 anniversary piece was included due to the fact that it helps to detail the differential in understanding women’s suffrage that has taken place within the past 25 years. Through such a unit of analysis, the reader is able to appreciate the evolutionary process by which an understanding of the suffrage movement has changed and shifted within the recent past. Fraser, Steve, and Joshua B. Freeman. "IN THE REARVIEW MIRROR: The Counter-Revolution Against "Mobocracy."  New Labor Forum (Murphy Institute)  21.2 (2012): 105-108.Academic Search Complete. Web. 12 Oct. 2013. This article references the main argument that many men of the era made against allowing women the right to vote; namely the belief that allowing women to vote would result in a type of â€Å"mob rule†. Naturally, by deconstructing this argument and showing how this ultimately did not come to pass, the author is able to shed additional light on the way in which antagonism towards women voting was evidenced during the turn of the century. This particular article discusses the fact that the United States was unique in the fact that it gave certain minorities the right to vote prior to women. In discussing the topic in such a way, the reader is made aware of the obvious levels and overtones of sexism that existed within the United States and caused the women’s suffrage movement to be delayed as long as it